A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): exploring host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2015
Authors:C. Doorenweerd, van Nieukerken, E. J., Menken, S. B. J.
Journal:PLOS one
Date Published:2015-03-18
Keywords:Ectoedemia, Ectoedemia aegilopidella, Ectoedemia agrimoniae, Ectoedemia albifasciella, Ectoedemia algeriensis, Ectoedemia alnifoliae, Ectoedemia amani, Ectoedemia andalusiae, Ectoedemia angulifasciella, Ectoedemia Annamocarya_Vietnam, Ectoedemia arcuatella, Ectoedemia argyropeza, Ectoedemia arisi, Ectoedemia atricollis, Ectoedemia atrifrontella, Ectoedemia canutus, Ectoedemia caradjai, Ectoedemia Carpinus_Taiwan, Ectoedemia Carpinus_Vietnam, Ectoedemia cerris, Ectoedemia cerviparadisicola, Ectoedemia chasanella, Ectoedemia christopheri, Ectoedemia clemensella, Ectoedemia contorta, Ectoedemia coscoja, Ectoedemia erythrogenella, Ectoedemia expeditionis, Ectoedemia gilvipennella, Ectoedemia hannoverella, Ectoedemia haraldi, Ectoedemia heckfordi, Ectoedemia hendrikseni, Ectoedemia heringella, Ectoedemia heringi, Ectoedemia ilicis, Ectoedemia intimella, Ectoedemia ivinskisi, Ectoedemia KenyaEvN4438, Ectoedemia klimeschi, Ectoedemia leucothorax, Ectoedemia liebwerdella, Ectoedemia liechtensteini, Ectoedemia longicaudella, Ectoedemia mahalebella, Ectoedemia minimella, Ectoedemia nr_canutus, Ectoedemia nyssaefoliella, Ectoedemia occultella, Ectoedemia olvina, Ectoedemia ornatella, Ectoedemia phaeolepis, Ectoedemia phyllotomella, Ectoedemia picturata, Ectoedemia pilosae, Ectoedemia piperella, Ectoedemia platanella, Ectoedemia populella, Ectoedemia preisseckeri, Ectoedemia pseudoilicis, Ectoedemia pubescivora, Ectoedemia quadrinotata, Ectoedemia quinquella, Ectoedemia reichli, Ectoedemia rosae, Ectoedemia rubifoliella, Ectoedemia rubivora, Ectoedemia rufifrontella, Ectoedemia similella, Ectoedemia spinosella, Ectoedemia spiraeae, Ectoedemia subbimaculella, Ectoedemia suberis, Ectoedemia terebinthivora, Ectoedemia tersiusi, Ectoedemia trinotata, Ectoedemia turbidella, Ectoedemia ulmella, Ectoedemia virgulae, Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae, Phylogenetic analyses, Zimmermannia

Background:Host association patterns that are seen in Ectoedemia species (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae and Betulaceae) and a tendency for related insect species to feed on related host plant species. The evolutionary processes underlying these patterns are only partly understood, we therefore aimed to use a species-level phylogeny of the leaf mining moth subgenus Ectoedemia to assess the role of allopatry and host plant family shifts in speciation. Methodology:Six nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers with a total aligned length of 3692 base pairs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 94 species belonging to the subgenus Ectoedemia of the genus Ectoedemia, representing a thorough taxon sampling with a global coverage. The results support monophyletic species groups that are congruent with published findings based on morphology. We used the obtained phylogeny to explore host plant family association and geographical distribution to investigate if host shifts and allopatry have been instrumental in the speciation of these leaf mining insects.Significance:We found that, even though most species within species groups commonly feed on plants from one family, shifts to a distantly related host family have occasionally occurred throughout the phylogeny and such shifts are most commonly observed towards Betulaceae. The largest radiations have occurred within species groups that feed on Fagaceae, Rosaceae and Salicaceae. Using the seven global biogeographic regions to demarcate allopatric distribution we found that most species are restricted to a single biogeographic region, but that within species groups representatives are commonly found in different biogeographic regions. Although we find similar patterns with regard to host use and biogeography, there are differences between clades that suggest that different drivers of speciation, and perhaps drivers that we did not examine, have shaped diversity patterns in different clades.

Taxonomic name: 
Ectoedemia (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia aegilopidella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia agrimoniae (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia albifasciella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia algeriensis (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia alnifoliae (Nepticuloidea), Zimmermannia amani (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia andalusiae (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia angulifasciella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia arcuatella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia argyropeza (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia arisi (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia atricollis (Nepticuloidea), Zimmermannia atrifrontella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia canutus (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia caradjai (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia cerris (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia cerviparadisicola (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia chasanella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia christopheri (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia clemensella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia contorta (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia coscoja (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia erythrogenella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia expeditionis (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia gilvipennella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia hannoverella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia haraldi (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia heckfordi (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia hendrikseni (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia heringella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia heringi (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia ilicis (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia intimella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia ivinskisi (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia klimeschi (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia leucothorax (Nepticuloidea), Zimmermannia liebwerdella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia liechtensteini (Nepticuloidea), Zimmermannia longicaudella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia mahalebella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia minimella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia nyssaefoliella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia occultella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia olvina (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia ornatella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia phaeolepis (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia phyllotomella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia picturata (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia pilosae (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia piperella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia platanella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia populella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia preisseckeri (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia pseudoilicis (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia pubescivora (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia quadrinotata (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia quinquella (Nepticuloidea), Zimmermannia reichli (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia rosae (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia rubifoliella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia rubivora (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia rufifrontella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia similella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia spinosella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia spiraeae (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia subbimaculella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia suberis (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia terebinthivora (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia tersiusi (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia trinotata (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia turbidella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia ulmella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia virgulae (Nepticuloidea), Nepticulidae (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia amani (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia atrifrontella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia liebwerdella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia longicaudella (Nepticuloidea), Ectoedemia reichli (Nepticuloidea), Zimmermannia (Nepticuloidea)
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith