DNA barcoding of the leaf-mining moth subgenus Ectoedemia s. str. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) with COI and EF1- α: two are better than one in recognising cryptic species

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2012
Authors:E. J. van Nieukerken, Doorenweerd, C., Stokvis, F. R., Groenenberg, D. S. J.
Journal:Contributions to Zoology
Date Published:2012-01-31
Keywords:Annomocarya, Borneo, California, Carpinus, Cuc Phuong, Ectoedemia, Ectoedemia admiranda, Ectoedemia aegilopidella, Ectoedemia agrimoniae, Ectoedemia albifasciella, Ectoedemia algeriensis, Ectoedemia alnifoliae, Ectoedemia amani, Ectoedemia andalusiae, Ectoedemia angulifasciella, Ectoedemia arcuatella, Ectoedemia argyropeza, Ectoedemia arisi, Ectoedemia atricollis, Ectoedemia canutus, Ectoedemia caradjai, Ectoedemia cerris, Ectoedemia cerviparadisicola, Ectoedemia chasanella, Ectoedemia christophori, Ectoedemia contorta, Ectoedemia coscoja, Ectoedemia erythrogenella, Ectoedemia expeditionis, Ectoedemia gilvipennella, Ectoedemia hannoverella, Ectoedemia haraldi, Ectoedemia heckfordi, Ectoedemia hendrikseni, Ectoedemia heringella, Ectoedemia heringi, Ectoedemia ilicis, Ectoedemia intimella, Ectoedemia ivinskisi, Ectoedemia klimeschi, Ectoedemia leucothorax, Ectoedemia liebwerdella, Ectoedemia liechtensteini, Ectoedemia longicaudella, Ectoedemia mahalebella, Ectoedemia minimella, Ectoedemia occultella, Ectoedemia ornatella, Ectoedemia phaeolepis, Ectoedemia phyllotomella, Ectoedemia picturata, Ectoedemia populella, Ectoedemia preisseckeri, Ectoedemia pseudoilicis, Ectoedemia pubescivora, Ectoedemia quadrinotata, Ectoedemia quinquella, Ectoedemia reichli, Ectoedemia rosae, Ectoedemia rubivora, Ectoedemia rufifrontella, Ectoedemia spinosella, Ectoedemia spiraeae, Ectoedemia subbimaculella, Ectoedemia suberis, Ectoedemia terebinthivora, Ectoedemia tersiusi, Ectoedemia turbidella, Fansipan, Japan, Lepidoptera, Namibia, Nepticulidae, Quercus gilva, Rubus, TamDao, USA, Vietnam, Zimmermannia

We sequenced 665bp of the Cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI)barcoding marker for 257 specimens and 482bp of ElongationFactor 1-α (EF1-α) for 237 specimens belonging to the leafminingsubgenus Ectoedemia (Ectoedemia) in the basal Lepidopteranfamily Nepticulidae. The dataset includes 45 out of 48West Palearctic Ectoedemia s. str. species and several speciesfrom Africa, North America and Asia. Both COI and EF1-αproved reliable as an alternative to conventional species identificationfor the majority of species and the combination of bothmarkers can aid in species validation. A clear barcode gap is notpresent, and in some species large K2P intraspecific pairwisedifferences are found, up to 6.85% in COI and 2.9% in EF1-α.In the Ectoedemia rubivora species complex, the species E. rubivora,E. arcuatella and E. atricollis share COI barcodes andcould only be distinguished by EF1-α. Diagnostic base positions,usually third codon positions, are in this and other casesa useful addition to species delimitation, in addition to distancemethods. Ectoedemia albifasciella COI barcodes fall into twodistinct clusters not related to other characters, whereas theseclusters are absent in EF1-α, possibly caused by mtDNA anomaliesor hybridisation. In the Ectoedemia subbimaculella complex,both sequences fail to unequivocally distinguish the speciesE. heringi, E. liechtensteini, E. phyllotomella and onepopulation of E. subbimaculella. DNA barcodes confirm thatNorth American Ectoedemia argyropeza are derived from aEuropean introduction. We strongly advocate the use of a nuclearmarker in addition to the universal COI barcode markerfor better identifying species, including cryptic ones.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith