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- The Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Lepidoptera) of North West Europe
- Introduction to the Nepticulidae
- Stigmella aurella (F.) and Stigmella splendidissimella (H.S.) (Lep., Nepticulidae) - a method of distinguishing mines on Rubus
- The Ando-Patagonian Stigmella magnispinella group (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae) with description of new species from Ecuador, Peru and Argentina
- Die Lepidopterenfauna von Herkulesbad und Orsova. Eine zoogeographische Studie
- Influences of leaf-mining insects on their host plants: A review
Ectoedemia turbidella (Zeller, 1848) Bradley et al., 1972
Ectoedemia similigenaDiagnostic description:
Ectoedemia similigena is very similar to E. turbidella and cannot be distinguished by external characters on the basis of the little material studied. The male genitalia have a distinctly longer valval tip than turbidella, and the gnathos is much narrower. The female genitalia have the posterior apophyses not reaching beyond the anterior ones and the signa are distinctly wider.Morphology:
Male forewing length ca. 3.0 mm, antennal segments 55. Female forewing length 2.6 mm, antenna broken. Specimens too much worn or broken for detailed description, similar to E. turbidella, overall paler.
Male genitalia. Capsule length 325 μm. Tegumen produced into widely rounded pseuduncus. Gnathos with central element narrowly triangular, smooth. Valva length 215 μm, in ventral view with almost parallel sides, evenly curved towards demarcated, inwards curved tip, pointed and cut off at end. Aedeagus 365 μm long, very long (1.12 × capsule length) and stout, with two pairs of prominent carinae; ventral pair at extreme posterior tip, basally connected, pointed; dorsolateral pair more anteriorly placed, longer than ventral ones, strongly curved in lateral view, dorsally connected, slightly asymmetrical.
Female genitalia. T7 without row of setae, T8 relatively narrow, hardly tapering posteriorly, margins almost parallel, with two groups of ca 27 setae. Anal papillae narrow, with 14 setae in total. Anterior apophyses widened in middle. Posterior apophyses slightly widening anteriorly, not reaching beyond anterior ones. Vestibulum with vaginal sclerite, a dorsal spiculate pouch with many (ca 100) single, equally spaced, spines; and a patch of densely packed pectinations near entrance of ductus spermathecae. Corpus bursae small. ca 420 μm long, covered with small pectinations, except in anterior part; signa slightly dissimilar, 275 and 290 μm long, relatively wide (7–8 cells), ca 2.9 × as long as wide. Ductus spermathecae with 2.5 convolutions.Associations:
Hostplant unknown, a Populus is likely.Distribution:
Ectoedemia similigena is only known from its type locality, Jalta botanical garden, on the Crimea (Ukraine). The species has not been found again, and we consider it possible that it is actually a species from somewhere in Central or Eastern Asia, introduced with plants.Life cycle:
Adults found in May.
Ectoedemia turbidellaDiagnostic description:
Diagnosis. Externally E. turbidella cannot be distinguished from E. albida or E. similigena, although these two are generally paler. The male genitalia are characterised by the short demarcated valval tip, the relatively longer aedeagus (1.22–1.27 × capsule length) and triangular gnathos (Hyperlink).
Female genitalia have prominent widened posterior apophyses, reaching beyond anterior ones and very short and narrow signa (5–6 cells wide, 2.7–5.1 × as long as wide) (Hyperlink). For differences from hannoverella see diagnosis of that species (Van Nieukerken 1985).Morphology:
Diagnosis: see diagnosis of hannoverella for the differences between it and turbidella. The male genitalia resemble those of klimeschi, but can be recognised by the shape of the valva, with tooth-shaped tip in turbidella, and the asymmetric aedeagus in klimeschi. The female genitalia are very characteristic with the pointed ovipositor, and the long and broad apophyses.Associations:
Hostplants: Populus alba L. and P. canescens (Aiton.) Sm., only on the smaller leaves of older shoots of large trees, never on saplings. Material from Potsdam (leg. Hinneberg) is labelled with "Pop.nigr.", but this is probably incorrect. Mine (figs. 476). Egg deposited on side of petiole, about 1½— 2 cm from leaf base. Mine first straight gallery in petiole, causing swelling; final instar larva makes triangular blotch between first lateral vein and leaf margin, or less often between midrib and first lateral vein; frass deposited in two lateral lines, leaving passage for larva, which can withdraw itself in petiole.Distribution:
Widespread. In Scandinavia in southern Sweden and Denmark only, very local in the extreme east of England, locally abundant throughout central Europe. Some scattered records are known from southern Europe: Spain, Sicily. Finland: Mutanen et al. 2001; Estonia: Jürivete et al. 2000; Latvia: Šulcs and Šulcs 1984; Lithuania: Diškus 2003; Belarus: Merzheevskaja et al. 1976; Bulgaria: Chorbadziev 1915 [overlooked in 1985]; Russia: Jürivete et al. 2000; Nieukerken et al. 2004b. Iran to be removed (see E. albida).Life cycle:
Live history. Univoltine. Larvae start feeding probably in summer, mature larvae can be found in October and November, usually later than hannoverella, often in green islands in fallen leaves. The larva usually feeds in the night. Adults fly from April to June.
This taxonomic description is based on Van Nieukerken (1985) and Van Nieukerken et al (2010)